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Helpful A-Z glossary listing key energy, consultancy and compliance industry terms and their definitions.



Authorisation, approval or recognition of meeting a standard.


To ensure that our buildings and infrastructures protect occupants and withstand the intensity and frequency of extreme weather conditions, adaptations must be made to the design and construction of new and existing buildings and infrastructures.

(ACEA) Air conditioning energy assessment

(APEL) Accreditation of prior experiential learning

AR - Advisory Report

Also referred to as a Recommendation Report, this is a mandatory document which accompanies an Energy Performance Certificate or Display Energy Certificate. An Advisory Report outlines cost-effective measures for saving energy and recommends various green technologies and the short, medium and long term paybacks which can be expected following implementation. More ⇒

(ATT) Air tightness testing

Air Tightness Testing & Measurement Association (ATTMA)

The Air Tightness Testing and Measurement Association (ATTMA) ensures that its members maintain high standards of service in air leakage testing and measurement applications. Awarding Body of the Built Environment (ABBE)

Awarding Body of the Built Environment (ABBE)

ABBE is a specialist awarding body providing nationally recognised qualifications for disciplines within the built environment sector. More ⇒


(BER) Non domestic building energy rating

(BPEC) British Plumbers Employers Council

British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT)

The Institute's aim is to promote and advance the science and practice of non-destructive testing, condition monitoring, diagnostic engineering and all other materials and quality testing disciplines. BINDT runs a recognised competent persons scheme for air leakage testing restricted to domestic properties only. Stroma is one of only two providers currently approved to deliver this training.

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)

The leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the de facto measure used to describe a building's environmental performance. More ⇒


Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme (CRC EES)

The Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme (CRC EES) is a new mandatory emissions trading scheme that aims to improve energy efficiency and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted in the UK. More ⇒

Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT)

The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) is an obligation introduced by the Government on energy suppliers to achieve targets for promoting reductions in carbon emissions in the household sector and combating fuel poverty. More ⇒


Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organisation. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, or assessment. More ⇒


The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers' Technical Manual 23 is a former air-tightness testing standard referenced in Part L (2002). It has subsequently been replaced by ATTMA TS1 (Air-Tightness Testing and Measurement Association Technical Standard 1). More ⇒

Climate Change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.


The chemical formula for carbon dioxide, a heavy odorless gas (CO2) formed during respiration and by the combustion or decomposition of organic substances; it is absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis.

Community Energy Savings Programme

CESP measures will be funded by a new and additional obligation on energy suppliers and electricity generators and it is expected that around 100 schemes will be funded, benefiting some 90,000 households, delivering a saving of nearly 4mt of CO2 emissions.More ⇒

Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH)

The Code for Sustainable Homes is an environmental impact rating system for housing in England, setting new standards for energy efficiency (above those in current building regulations)[1] and sustainability which are not mandatory under current building regulations but represent important developments towards limiting the environmental impact of housing. More ⇒


Calculates the as built thermo graphic properties (Macro U value)

Communities and Local Government (CLG)

Stroma Certification Ltd has been approved by the Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) to train and accredit energy assessors for existing dwellings, newly constructed dwellings, public buildings and non-domestic buildings. More ⇒

Compliance Testing

Conformance testing or type testing is testing to determine whether a system meets some specified standard. More ⇒

To aid in this, many test procedures and test setups have been developed, either by the standard's maintainers or external organizations, specifically for testing conformance to standards.


Stroma’s code reporting software

(CPD) Continuing Professional Development

(CPS) Competent Person Scheme - Allow technically competent practitioners to Self Certify works

(CRC) Carbon reduction commitment


Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) is a British government department created on 3 October 2008 by Prime Minister Gordon Brown to take over some of the functions of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (energy) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (climate change). More ⇒

(DER) Dwelling Emission Rate

The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) is a toolkit to measure the design quality of buildings. DQI applies a structured approach to assess design quality based on the model by the engineer Vitruvius, the Roman author of the earliest surviving theoretical treatise on building in Western culture More ⇒

Design Reiews

A comprehensive review carried out by experiecned air-tightness consultants.

Design Workshops

A simple but effective method of interrogating the air-tightness strategy and key drawn details.

(DEA) Domestic Energy Assessment

Display Energy Certificate (DEC)

All public buildings require a Display Energy Certificate which shows the energy usage of the building and its overall energy performance on a scale of A-G, where A indicates the highest level of energy efficiency. The rating is calculated using the data gathered from the building's gas, electricity and water meters. More ⇒

Stroma was the first company in the UK to lodge a live DEC. Our team of fully employed, certified energy assessors can carry out the survey, generate the certificate and lodge it with the government; Stroma was also the first 'live' certification scheme in this field in the UK.

Dynamic Simulation Model (DSM)

Dynamic Simulation Model (DSM) is a form of government-approved software that is used on more complex non-residential properties to produce a more accurate energy appraisal than would be possible using SBEM. More ⇒



Dwelling Emission Rate, To limit emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere arising from the operation of a dwelling and its services.


ENE 5 is a Category of BREEAM of which three credits are available.

The aim is to reduce carbon emissions and atmospheric pollution by encouraging local energy generation from renewable sources to supply a significant proportion of the energy demand.


Ene 7 is a Category of the Code for Sustainable Homes of which two credits are available.

The aim is to reduce carbon emissions and atmospheric pollution by encouraging local energy generation from renewable sources to supply a significant proportion of the energy demand.

Energy Assessment

This refers to the preparation and issuing of an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) and the accompanying Recommendation Report (RR) and the carrying out of any inspections undertaken for the purposes of issuing the EPC or RR.

Energy Assessor

An energy assessor is an individual who is a member of an accreditation or certification scheme.

Energy Audit

An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows in a building, process or system with the objective of understanding the energy dynamics of the system under study. Typically an energy audit is conducted to seek opportunities to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). More ⇒

Energy Management

A continuous planning process that is used to accomplish the efficient use of energy in a building or system. More ⇒

Energy Performance Certificate (EPC)

All commercial properties require an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) which rates the energy efficiency of the building on a scale of A-G, where A signifies the highest level of efficiency. More ⇒

Stroma was the first company in the UK to lodge a live commercial EPC. Our team of fully employed, certified energy assessors can carry out the survey, generate the certificate and lodge it with the government. In addition, we were the first live certification scheme in this field.

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

The Directive on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) is the Directive 2002/91/EC (EPBD, 2003) of the European Parliament and Council on energy efficiency of buildings. More ⇒


Fabric-First Approach

We have particular expertise in fabric design (new build) and retrospective improvement through air-tightness improvement, insulation stratergies, quantification and mitigation of thermal bridging.

(FEA) Finite Element Analysis thermal bridges

(FEE) Fabric Energy Efficiency

Feed-in-Tariff (FIT)

A feed-in tariff (FiT, feed-in law, advanced renewable tariff or renewable energy payments) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources.

(FRA) Fire risk assessments

(Full SAP) FSAP - Stroma’s SAP Software

Fuel Poverty

In the UK Fuel poverty is said to occur when in order to heat its home to an adequate standard of warmth a household needs to spend more than 10% of its income on total fuel use.


(HCA) Homes and communities agency

Home Energy Advisory (HEA)

Home energy advisors will visit people in their homes to undertake an energy assessment of individual households to identify recommendations that will help to reduce costs and lower CO2 emissions.

Housing Quality Indicators (HQIs)

The Housing Quality Indicators (HQI) system is a measurement and assessment tool to evaluate housing schemes on the basis of quality rather than just cost. They incorporate the design standards required of affordable housing providers receiving funding through the NAHP

(HVAC) Heating ventilation and cooling


Institute for sustainability

(IPA) Independent planning application (inc Merton Rule)


iSBEM is a freely available software interface program provided by the government which is used for SBEM calculations.

ISO 9001

The internationally recognised quality management system maintained by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Stroma Technology are independently certified to this standard. More ⇒

ISO 14001

The internationally recognised environmental management system maintained by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). More ⇒

ISO 17024

The internationally recognised standard for an organisation's certification program for individual persons, maintained by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Stroma is accredited under ISO 17024 for the certification of individuals for the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) scheme. More ⇒

ISO 17025

The internationally recognised laboratory quality standard and the main standard to govern testing and calibration services, maintained by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Stroma is accredited under ISO 17025 for air-tightness and acoustic insulation testing and the calibration of air permeability test equipment. More ⇒



An information group set up to search EPCs and HCPs. More ⇒

Life Cycle Costing

A procurement evaluation technique which determines the total cost of acquisition, operation, maintenance, and disposal of items being acquired.

(LZC) Low to zero carbon


(MCS) Microgeneration certification scheme


(NDEA) Non-domestic energy assessment

Nil-rated certificate

A certificate obtained for inclusion in the Home Information Pack (HIP) of a dwelling which has not been built to a Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) level.

National Indicator (NI 188)

National Indicator NI188 is about 'planning to adapt to climate change'. The indicator is a key driver for local action on adaptation.

(NOS) National Occupational Standard


Operational Rating (OR)

A feature on the DECs showing the buildings ratings in certain areas. More ⇒

(OR TOOLKIT) Operation rating toolkit

(OSA15) Online secure archive


Pre-test inspections

An inspection, prior to the test, carried out by our consultants who scrutinise the air barrier details throughout the building.


Product Characteristics Data File

Part E

Compliant Sound Insulation Testing required on Houses/Flats and Rooms for residential purposes.

Part L

Conservation of fuel and power. Part L

(PV) Solar photovoltaic



Reduced Data Standard Assessment Procedure (RdSAP) is the government-approved program used to carry out an energy assessment on an existing residential property in order to generate an EPC. The pre-fix reduced data acknowledges that the assessor will have to make assumptions about the building - such as age, wall thickness, type of insulation - when carrying out the assessment due to the absence of design information.

Stroma has developed its own industry-leading RdSAP software which is available free of charge to all Stroma-certified DEAs. More ⇒


Retrofitting refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems. An example of this is car customizing, where older vehicles are fitted with new technologies: power windows, cruise control, remote keyless systems, electric fuel pumps, etc.

(RIT) Room integrity testing

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (RRO)

As part of the government's commitment to reduce death, injury and damage caused by fire, regulations have been reviewed and a number of changes implemented through the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. Implemented in October 2006, the RRO applies throughout England and Wales and contains fire precautions and duties which are necessary to protect both people and buildings in the event of a fire. More ⇒

Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)

To meet our 2020 15% renewable energy target, we need to develop new ways of generating renewable energy in all sectors, including heat. Heat generated from renewable sources accounts for approximately 1% of total heat demand this may need to rise to 12% to hit our binding EU targets.

Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROC's)

A Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) is a green certificate issued to an accredited generator for eligible renewable electricity generated within the United Kingdom and supplied to customers within the United Kingdom by a licensed electricity supplier. One ROC is issued for each megawatt hour (MWh) of eligible renewable output generated.

Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)

The Royal Institute of British Architects is the UK body for architecture and the architectural profession. We provide support for our 40,500 members worldwide in the form of training, technical services, publications and events, and set standards for the education of architects, both in the UK and overseas. More ⇒


(SAMS) Stroma Assessor management software

(SBEM) Simplified Building Energy Model

Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM)

Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) is the computer program used to produce an evaluation of the monthly carbon emissions of a non-domestic property. It is acknowledged by the government as part of the national methodology for calculating the energy performance of a building and thus is used as the calculation tool for producing non-domestic EPCs. More ⇒

Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP)

Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP 2005) is the process required for a new residential property at both design stage and upon completion to calculate energy consumption and ensure compliance with Building Regulations. Once the assessment has been carried out on the completed building, an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is issued.

Stroma's team of fully certified, fully employed energy assessors can carry out the SAP assessment and generate and lodge the EPC. Stroma Accreditation provides training and certification services for on construction domestic energy assessors.

Sustainable Design

Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally-conscious design, etc) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability.


Technology Strategy Board

An organisation set up to push innovation in the UK and make the UK a global leader in innovation.

(TER) Target Emission Rate

(TSB) Technology strategy board – Retrofit for the future initiative


United Kingdom Accreditation Service(UKAS)

The United Kingdom Accreditation Service is the sole body recognised by the government to accredit organisations throughout the UK against internationally agreed standards. Stroma is accredited for air leakage testing and acoustic testing in accordance with ISO 17025 and for the certification of individuals under the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) scheme in accordance with ISO 17024. More ⇒

The UK Climate Projections(UKCP09)

UKCP09 is the fifth generation of climate change information for the UK, and its projecrions are based on a new methodology designed by the Met Office. Climate science and computer modelling have advanced significantly – UKCP09 reflects scientists' best understanding of how the climate system operates, how it might change in the future, and allows a measure of the uncertainty in future climate projections to be included. No climate model can give a single definite answer to what the future will look like.


Working units (unless otherwise noted)
Area [m²]
Energy [kWh]
Energy density {kWh / m²]
Carbon dioxide emissions [kgCO2]